Gy. Abstract, 2007). However, to date, we
Gy. Abstract, 2007). However, to date, we PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27488610 find no other ifna genes present in our database other than ifna1 to enable us to conclude that expression of these other ifn genes does occur. Zebrafish also has two to three ifn genes in the 3'-flanking region and the scn gene in the 5'-flanking region of the gh gene on chromosome 3 .Genome rearrangements The gh2 genes have undergone some rearrangements in comparison to the gh1 paralogues (differences in promoter sequences, partly due to variable transposon integrations; deletions or lack of microsatellite insertions in intron 3; intronic microsatellite variations in intron 4). Part of this may be due to chromosome structure or positioning . Also, some of the genomic variations observed between the gh1 and gh2 paralogues might be due to vestigial effects caused by a rearrangement that led to the rise of the Y-linked gh2 pseudogene . Whether the additional transposon insertions found in the AS ghConclusionThis is one of the first in a series of studies that are needed to document coding and non-coding changes that have occurred subsequent to a whole genome duplication. As GH has been the focus of biotechnological advances in aquaculture, it is important to investigate expression changes and genomic organizational changes in important economic traits such as growth. In this paper, we report on the impact of repeat elements and transposon integrations and show that in Oncorhynchus species the GH1 duplicate has undergone a higher rate of change.Page 8 of(page number not for citation purposes)BMC Genomics 2008, 9:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/9/Genomes, particularly salmonid genomes, are dynamic. Part of the dynamism is the result of the purported whole genome duplication and the past integration of SINEs and LINEs into them. LINEs and SINEs introduce repetitive elements that may misalign causing unequal recombination to occur, and thereby introduce deletions and insertions among duplicated genomes. Coupled with this is the integration of a wide assortment of transposon sequences as described here and elsewhere . Over time, these genomic rearrangements have led to the creation of pseudogenes, structural differences between duplicated genes and to differential regulation of paralogues. In AS and CS, we show that transposon insertions have occurred differently in the promoters of gh, within and between each species. The organization Linerixibat of transposon families in the BACs containing gh1 and in the BACs containing gh2, is very similar within orthologous regions (Figure 4). However, much less conservation is apparent in comparisons between the gh1- and gh2-containing paralogous BACs for the two fish species (Figure 4). The appearance of repeated elements and differential rates of change in the gh1 and gh2 regions is consistent with the hypothesis that a burst of transposition activity occurred during the speciation events which led to Atlantic and Pacific salmon PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27909987 . Genome and gene duplication (30 to 100 MYA; [39,40]) has taken place much earlier than the speciation (14 to 23 MYA; [9,41,42]) and these data suggest that after gene duplication, gh1 in Oncorhynchus has evolved much faster than gh2, possibly because the genomic region for gh1 has undergone more reorganization compared to the region containing gh2.BAC DNA confirmation Confirmation of AS gh-containing BACs was performed by comparisons of HindIII restriction digests of the isolated clones to in silico digests for each BAC.
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